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三田図書館・情報学会誌論文(論文ID LIS013233)

The Role of Scientific Information in the Social System of Science
No.13, p.233-246

Analysis of the communication practice in the scientific community is a necessary step to organize a national Information system for science and technology, and to construct a theory of special librarianship. But, studies on communication in science have been descriptive, rather than theoretical.

A theory of scientific communication must be based on the analysis of the social system of science. As a first step, the system can be analyzed in terms of a social exchange, i. e., the presentation of a research result and the professional recognition given for it. Scientific papers are the most important media used in this exchange.

Professional recognition is given to creative research, and many kind of rewards are given based on this professional recognition, such as promotion, the award of an honorary title and a scientific medal. easier access to funds.

Another aspect of the reward system of science can be seen from the determination process of a technical term. Eponymy is a kind of reward to a nation, as well as to a scientist.

The history of science has witnessed many struggles for priority among scientists. And scientists have been used many means to establish priority; anagrams, sealed letters, scientific journals, presentation at scientific conferences, letters to the editor, letter journals, preprints, mass communication media, forecast added to previous papers, etc.

The modern system of science, however, does not always observe the classical norm of science. This is due to the institutionalization of science and the emergence of big science or government science. We need a more actual and rational model of the social system of science. A theory of scientific communication will be constructed based on this model.